1. Now Philopater, on learning from those who came back that Antiochus had made himself master of the places which belonged to himself, sent orders to all his footmen and horsemen, took with him his sister Arsinoe, and marched out as far as the parts of Raphia, where Antiochus and his forces encamped.2. And one Theodotus, intending to carry out his design, took with him the bravest of the armed men who had been before committed to his trust by Ptolemy, and got through at night to the tent of Ptolemy, to kill him on his own responsibility, and so to end the war.3. But Dositheus, called the son of Drimulus, by birth a Jew, afterward a renegade from the laws and observances of his country, conveyed Ptolemy away, and made an obscure person lie down in his stead in the tent. It befell this man to receive the fate which was meant for the other.4. A fierce battle then took place; and the men of Antiochus prevailing, Arsinoe continually went up and down the ranks, and with dishevelled hair, with tears and entreaties, begged the soldiers to fight manfully for themselves, their children, and wives; and promised that if they proved conquerors, she would give them two minae of gold apiece.5. It thus fell out that their enemies were defeated in hand-to-hand encounter, and that many of them were taken prisoners.6. Having vanquished this attempt, the king then decided to proceed to the neighbouring cities, and encourage them.7. By doing this, and by making donations to their temples, he inspired his subjects with confidence.8. The Jews sent some of their council and of their elders to him. The greetings, guest-gifts, and congratulations of the past, bestowed by them, filled him with the greater eagerness to visit their city.9. Having arrived at Jerusalem, sacrificed, and offered thank-offerings to the Greatest God, and done whatever else was suitable to the sanctity of the place, and entered the inner court,10. he was so struck with the magnificence of the place, and so wondered at the orderly arrangements of the temple, that he considered entering the sanctuary itself.11. And when they told him that this was not permissible, none of the nation, no, nor even the priests in general, but only the supreme high priest of all, and he only once in a year, being allowed to go in, he would by no means give way.12. Then they read the law to him; but he persisted in obtruding himself, exclaiming, that he ought to be allowed: and saying Be it that they were deprived of this honour, I ought not to be.
13. And he put the question, Why, when he entered all the temples, none of the priests who were present forbad him?14. He was thoroughly answered by some one, That he did wrong to boast of this.
15. Well; since I have done this, said he, be the cause what it may, shall I not enter with or without your consent?16. And when the priests fell down in their sacred vestments imploring the Greatest God to come and help in time of need, and to avert the violence of the fierce aggressor, and when they filled the temple with lamentations and tears,
17. Then those who had been left behind in the city were scared, and rushed forth, uncertain of the event.18. Virgins, who had been shut up within their chambers, came out with their mothers, scattering dust and ashes on their heads, and filling the streets with outcries.19. Women, but recently separated off, left their bridal chambers, left the reserve that befitted them, and ran about the city in a disorderly manner.20. New-born babes were deserted by the mothers or nurses who waited upon them; some here, some there, in houses, or in fields; these now, with an ardour which could not be checked, swarmed into the Most High temple.21. Various were the prayers offered up by those who assembled in this place, on account of the unholy attempt of the king.22. Along with these there were some of the citizens who took courage, and would not submit to his obstinacy, and his intention of carrying out his purpose.23. Calling out to arms, and to die bravely in defence of the law of their fathers, they created a great uproar in the place, and were with difficulty brought back by the aged and the elders to the station of prayer which they had occupied before.24. During this time the multitude kept on praying.25. The elders who surrounded the king strove in many ways to divert his haughty mind from the design which he had formed.26. He, in his hardened mood, insensible to all persuasion, was going onwards with the view of carrying out this design.27. Yet even his own officers, when they saw this, joined the Jews in an appeal to Him who has all power, to aid in the present crisis, and not wink at such overweening lawlessness.28. Such was the frequency and the vehemence of the cry of the assembled crowd, that an indescribable noise ensued.29. Not the men only, but the very walls and floor seemed to sound forth; all things preferring dissolution rather than to see the place defiled.
Footnotes by Verse:
1. Now Philopator ... Ptolemy IV Philopator (r. 221 – 204 BC ).
1. Antiochus ... Antiochus III the Great (r. April/June 222 – 3 July 187 BC). King of the Seleucid empire.
1. Now Philopater, on learning from those who came back that Antiochus had made himself master of the places which belonged to himself, ... In 221 BC, one year after his accession, Antiochus III invaded the Ptolemaic territories in Coele-Syria.
1. Arsinoe ... Arsinoe III Philopator (r. 220–204 BC). Queen of Eqypt and sister to Ptolemy IV Philopator.
1. Raphia ... In 217 BC, Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe III led the Egyptian army into the Levant, where it met Antiochus III's army in battle at Raphia on 22 June 217 BC. This was one of the largest battles of the Hellenistic Age with over 150,000 soldiers participating in the melee.
2. Theodotus ... Theodotus of Aetolia, was an Aetolian general, who at the accession of the Seleucid monarch, Antiochus III the Great (223–187 BC), held the command of the important province of Coele-Syria for Ptolemy Philopator (221–204 BC), king of Egypt.
4. A fierce battle then took place ... The battle at Raphia (217BC), where Ptolemy IV Philopator of Egypt ultimately conquered sending Antiochus III fleeing back to Antioch.
6. the King ... referring to king of Egypt, Ptolemy IV Philopator. (r. 221 – 204 BC).